An Introduction to Digital Cameras and Photographyby Alan Zisman (c) 2016
This document: http://zisman.ca/photos
— types of digital cameras
— camera jargon
— look at your camera
— menu items - going beyond the presets
— know the icons on your screen
— mobile device cameras
— how to take better photos:
—— It’s all about the light
—— pre-set scene modes
—— use macro for closeups
—— better composition
— connecting your camera and computer
— organize your photos
— editing/enhancing photos
— about Picasa
— sharing photos on Facebook, email, etc
— printing photos, calendars, books etc
— backing up your photos
|Talking about digital cameras and photography can be confusing and
complicated - there are a wide range of types of digital cameras,
from simply point-and-shoots to complex SLRs. As well, increasingly
people are using their smartphones and tablets to take photos. So no
one size fits all! As well, people are storing and editing their photos
on Macs and Windows PC, on iPads, iPhones and Android devices and using
cloud services. One relatively brief introduction can barely scratch
the surface of all of these.
What this isn't: It's not going to be make you a professional photographer - it's not going to into detail on using the many manual settings on a pro-level camera or to use the astounding depth of options on pro-level software like Adobe Photoshop.
Instead, we're going to take a look at a relatively simple digital camera and the camera on a smartphone - your camera and/or smartphone will almost certainly be different, but hopefully you can apply the ideas from to your own gear. We'll look at several pieces of software available for Windows PCs and make some recommendations for Mac-users and users of iOS and Android devices. We'll also look at several cloud-based photo storage services and book/card/calendar printing services.
||45-55 mm lens were 'standard' on
35 mm SLRs; smaller sizes (24-28 mm for instance) were 'wide angle',
larger sizes (80 mm and up) were telephoto/close-up. A zoom lens can
smoothly move from wide-angle to telephoto.
||the opening in the camera's
shutter, controlling how much light could enter - refered to as
'F-stop' - the smaller the number, the larger the opening
||the measure of 'film speed' -
i.e. sensitivity to light. Standard film was ISO 100-200; higher
numbers can capture images in lower light - but with more 'noise' -
random dots of colour. Digital cameras pretend to be loaded with film of a specific sensitivity
||how fast the shutter opens,
measured in fractions of a second. A longer shutter speed lets in more
light, but risks blur as the subject moves. Shutter speed and aperture
both affect exposure. A quick shutter speed can capture action without
|depth of field
||how much of the image is in
focus - a shallow depth of field, with the background blurry is often a
desired effect. Aperture affects depth of field
||digital camera images are made
up of tiny dots (pixels);
a megapixel is a million dots. Today's digital cameras take images that
are 8 -16 megapixels in size - but more isn't necessarily better.
||set what the camera sees as
'white' in different sorts of light for more accurate colours
|optical vs digital zoom
||with optical zoom the lens
magnifies the image; with digital zoom the camera artificially
magnifies the center of the image by enlarging the size of the
pixels.Try and avoid digital zoom! Most smartphones and tablets only
offer digital zoom.
||on DSLR models (but not on many
less sophisticated cameras) users can choose these partially manual
modes: aperture priority lets the user manually choose an aperture and
the camera does the rest; shutter priority lets the user control the
shutter speed and the camera does the rest. With aperture priority, the
user can control the depth of field; shutter priority lets the user
control the amount of motion blur.
||set your camera in macro mode
when you want to take a close-up picture of something a few inches away
- some cameras may have two macro settings - one for very close, the
other for very, very close. The icon often looks like a tulip.
|Some things to note:
|The first image is out of focus
- the second was improved by focusing on the banner on the wall. Doing
that even improved the focus of the wood on the fire and the people on
the left of the building.
fuzziness in this photo isn't the result of being poorly focused.
Instead, it's the result of shaky hands.
The photo was taken at night, which means the shutter was open longer, giving more opportunity for my hands to tremble holding the camera. As well, it was taken with a long zoom to try to catch the details of the top of the clock on the distant tower. The magnification of the long zoom also magnifies any shaking.
The photo could have been significantly improved if I had the camera on a tripod to hold it still. In a pinch, resting the camera on a wall could have helped.
No tripod or wall was available - the result was a more or less unusable photo.
|I was taking photos indoors at
the Biennale in the Italian town of Viterbo in the basement of a
medievale stone building - all the photos had the reddish cast like the
image on the left. I assumed it was the result of the dim indoor light.
Then I noticed that my camera was still in 'Sunset mode' from the night
before. Switching to 'Auto mode' got me the image on the right - note
that both photos were taken without flash - the image on the right is
actually a bit clearer and brighter than 'real life'!
|In its standard modes, your
camera propably can't focus well on anything closer than about two feet
Tying to take a closeup of the red flower in standard mode got us the fuzzy image on the left.
Switchin on 'macro mode' - on the S-7000 using the tulip icon on the multi-selection switch - got the much clearer image on the right.
Again, your camera will have its own way of letting you access macro mode - learn how to enable it, and again, remember to turn it off when you're done!
|HDR (High Dynamic Range) is
wildly popular these days - when you see landscape photos with
seemingly exagerrated colours in clouds and sky, those shots may have
been made with an HDR (or HDR+) setting.
"Instead of just taking one photo, HDR uses three photos, taken at different exposures.... In the case of HDR on smartphones, your phone does all the work for you—just snap your picture and it'll spit out one regular photo and one HDR photo. The result is something that should look more like what your eyes see, rather than what your camera sees." (What is HDR and When Should I Use It In My Photos?)
In fact, while many photos - think sunsets, skies, clouds - generally seem less colourful than we remember 'real life' many HDR images seem a bit over the top, at least to my eyes.
Below are two images of more or less the same vista on a snowy morning at Vancouver's New Brighton Beach Park. The one on the left was taken using my smartphone's standard photo settings, the other with HDR.
Note how much more intense the blue in the sky is on the image to the right, how there is greater contrast from grey to white in the clouds, and how the shadows in the footprints in the snow are darker.
Since your camera is snapping 3 images when you use HDR settings, it will take longer to snap and save the shots. Not recommended for action photos!
Get in the habit of thinking in terms of The Rule of Thirds - mentally draw
lines to divide your camera screen into thirds horizontally and
vertically. Try to line up the horizon with one of the horizontal
lines. Place verticals - edges of buildings, people, etc - along one of
the vertical lines. The result will be an image that is more
interesting than if the subject is smack dab in the middle.
Look at the photo on the right - laundry hanging across a canal in Venice. Notice how the right-hand edge of the brick building on the left and the left-hand edge of the building on the right make strong vertical lines at (more or less) the 1/3 and 2/3 mark.
As well, the top of the line of laundry makes a horizontal line approximately 1/3 of the way down.
Finally, the two people in the lower-right hand corner are in the lower-right square formed by the imaginary horizontal and vertical lines.
a story - a photo with a story is more interesting than one
without. The photos of the Orvieto Duomo up above show a beautiful
building, but that's all.... the photo of the Duomo with the Italian
soldiers with submachines guarding it against possible terrorist attack
has a story to tell, and is certainly more interesting than the same
photo if it had, say, a couple of tourists eating gelato looking across
the square at the Duomo.
|You can often improve the
composition of an image after you've taken it
by 'cropping' - cutting off part of the image, to remove distracting or
(Do this on your computer or tablet).
That's what I did with the photo with the flower up above. See how cropping improves the original image (a fresco on the wall of the Palazzo Medici Riccardi in Florence):
|When you first connect your
camera - or its memory card - to your
computer, a message may pop up asking how you want to deal with this
newly-connected device - choices can include opening a variety of
different pieces of software, opening the computer's file management
utility (to show you the list of photos), or to do nothing.
Unfortunately, the choice you make will happen each time - and may be
difficult to change after the fact.
Here's what I saw the first time I connected my camera to my Windows 10 PC - I had only a few seconds to click on the first message. (If you miss it, unplug the camera, plug it in again and try again!)
The second image was scrollable - including more possible actions and programs than it had room to display, based on the programs installed on my computer.
I prefer having my computer's file management utility (Windows File Explorer on Windows computers, the Finder on Macs) open - this lets me view the photos, copy them to the location of my choice on my computer, delete them from the camera's memory card, etc. without locking me into any particular program on my computer. Alternatively, doing nothing means the computer will treat the camera or memory card as an external drive, letting me open any piece of software to work with my photos - including the file management utility - at some later time.
Note that I had to browse through several layers of folders on my camera's memory card to reach the actual photos. If I was displaying the 100Nikon folder in the window, I could have dragged it to the Desktop - this would copy that folder and all the photos in it to my computer's Desktop; from there, I might rename the folder and copy it to my computer's Pictures folder.
If I'd taken the memory card out of the camera and plugged it directly into my computer, I wouldn't have seen anything on screen - but the memory card would appear as a new drive in Windows File Explorer letting me quickly get to the same screen as the image on the right. (On a Mac, it would pop up on the Desktop as a new external drive).
If you've chosen to have the computer load the photos into some program then you should learn to work with that program....